CLIME is a horizontal climate service developed by the REMHI division of CMCC Foundation. The main goal of
this service is to provide an advanced tool to evaluate high-resolution climate data, from the continental
to the local area, and for users with different backgrounds.
CLIME’s features build upon a long-standing expertise of the REMHI division in the development and implementation of high and very high resolution climate data, impact models, procedures able to optimize the link between climate and impacts models, and advanced GIS tools for the management and visualization of climate data.
Finally, CLIME is based on the continuous interaction of REMHI researcher with end-users supporting them in their climate analysis.
The CLIME platform allows multi-level analysis of climate data (observed and simulated). For example, it includes the opportunity to use different typology BIAS correction techniques.
CLIME is a horizontal service because it is developed to provide many products to different users.
It is able to deal with the whole information production chain: from climate data collection/storage to correction and processing and visualization of climate data according to user needs.
CLIME is a web flexible platform, whose main functionalities are:
CLIME can be easily updated in order to include additional products and functionality. The entire in-house development of CLIME allows the users, through a graphical interface, to ask about development of new features, according with their needs and new data availability, and also to have support for the data interpretation, description, data publication for the writing of technical documents.
The CLIME service has been specialized to provide climate analyses using the high resolution climate projections
developed by CMCC but also available through other programs and projects.
Currently CLIME provides post-processing of high resolution climate projections developed by CMCC over Italian domain (Bucchignani et al., 2015, Zollo et al; 2015), but also from the projections of the EURO-CORDEX program* at the highest resolution currently available (about 12 km).
It also manages different observational dataset, for example E-OBS gridded dataset (Haylock et al. 2008), EURO4M dataset (Isotta et al., 2014) but also regional/local meteorological station data.
This service, therefore, allows to use the climate data with a multi-model approach and with uncertainty evaluation (Jacob, 2014), (Kotlarski, 2014) from national up to local level (e.g. NUT3 areas or municipality).
The simulated data are available for three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5). Currently five climate variables are available in the service: maximum temperature, minimum temperature, mean temperature, precipitation and humidity (additional variables can be added under user’s request). Currently, historical data are available starting from 1971 while climate projections over the period 2006-2100 (additional time periods can be considered considering user request).
*EURO-CORDEX is the European branch of the international CORDEX initiative, which is a program sponsored by the World Climate Research Program (WRCP, http://wcrp-cordex.ipsl.jussieu.fr/) to organize an internationally coordinated framework to produce improved regional climate change projections for all land regions world-wide. The CORDEX-results will serve as input for climate change impact and adaptation studies within the timeline of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and beyond. More information on the EURO-CORDEX initiative are available at the following link http://www.euro-cordex.net. The size and location of the CORDEX domains can be seen on the CORDEX web page (http://wcrp-cordex.ipsl.jussieu.fr/). The EURO-CORDEX domain covers all countries in the European Union, but it does not map perfectly to the Europe region defined for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report.
The CLIME service is useful for different types of users such as Consultancy Companies, Engineers, academic researchers and scientists and Public administrators. Users are both public (cities, municipalities) and private (firms, associations).
Our service has different objectives in order to address the diversity of our user base. In the case of non climate data experts, our goal is to develop a kind of “controlled application” avoiding an incorrect use of climate data and enlarging the community of climate data users, able to carry out climate analysis autonomously on areas and variables of interest. While, in the case of climate data experts, our goal is to integrate their specific analysis within our climate service, also providing a more advanced and complete analysis.
Users with programming skills can furtherly tailor the CLIME results for their analysis (starting from raw data) while for users that don’t have advanced programming skills, the results of climate data analysis will be available as temporal or statistical plots (data ready for final use).
Bucchignani E, Montesarchio M, Zollo AL, Mercogliano P (2016) High-resolution climate simulations with COSMO-CLM over Italy: performance evaluation and climate projections for the 21st century. Int J Climatol 36:735–756. doi: 10.1002/joc.4379.
Haylock MR, Hofstra N, Tank AMGK, et al (2008) A European daily high-resolution gridded data set of surface temperature and precipitation for 1950-2006. J Geophys Res. doi: 10.1029/2008jd010201.
Isotta FA, Frei C. et al 2014. The climate of daily precipitation in the Alps: development and analysis of a high-resolution grid dataset from pan-Alpine rain-gauge data. Int. J. Climatol. 34: 1657–1675, doi: 10.1002/joc.3794.
Jacob D, Petersen J, Eggert B, et al (2014) EURO-CORDEX: new high-resolution climate change projections for uropean impact research. Reg Environ Chang 14:563–578. doi: 10.1007/s10113-013-0499-2.
Kotlarski S, Keuler K, Christensen OB, et al (2014) Regional climate modeling on European scales: A joint standard evaluation of the EURO-CORDEX RCM ensemble. Geosci Model Dev 7:1297–1333. doi: 10.5194/gmd-7-1297-2014.
Zollo AL, Rillo V, Bucchignani E, et al (2016) Extreme temperature and precipitation events over Italy: assessment of high-resolution simulations with COSMO-CLM and future scenarios. Int J Climatol 36:987–1004. doi: 10.1002/joc.4401.